L. Guo, and W. Nahm. A cGAN-based network for depth estimation from bronchoscopic images. In International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery, 2023
Purpose Depth estimation is the basis of 3D reconstruction of airway structure from 2D bronchoscopic scenes, which can be further used to develop a vision-based bronchoscopic navigation system. This work aims to improve the performance of depth estimation directly from bronchoscopic images by training a depth estimation network on both synthetic and real datasets. Methods We propose a cGAN-based network Bronchoscopic-Depth-GAN (BronchoDep-GAN) to estimate depth from bron- choscopic images by translating bronchoscopic images into depth maps. The network is trained in a supervised way learning from synthetic textured bronchoscopic image-depth pairs and virtual bronchoscopic image-depth pairs, and simultaneously, also in an unsupervised way learning from unpaired real bronchoscopic images and depth maps to adapt the model to real bronchoscopic scenes.Results Our method is tested on both synthetic data and real data. However, the tests on real data are only qualitative, as no ground truth is available. The results show that our network obtains better accuracy in all cases in estimating depth from bronchoscopic images compared to the well-known cGANs pix2pix.Conclusions Including virtual and real bronchoscopic images in the training phase of the depth estimation networks can improve depth estimation’s performance on both synthetic and real scenes. Further validation of this work is planned on 3D clinical phantoms. Based on the depth estimation results obtained in this work, the accuracy of locating bronchoscopes with corresponding pre-operative CTs will also be evaluated in comparison with the current clinical status.
L. Guo, and W. Nahm. Texture synthesis for generating realistic-looking bronchoscopic videos. In International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery, 2023
Purpose Synthetic realistic-looking bronchoscopic videos are needed to develop and evaluate depth estimation methods as part of investigating vision-based bronchoscopic navigation system. To generate these synthetic videos under the circumstance where access to real bronchoscopic images/image sequences is limited, we need to create various realistic-looking image textures of the airway inner surface with large size using a small number of real bronchoscopic image texture patches. Methods A generative adversarial networks-based method is applied to create realistic-looking textures of the airway inner surface by learning from a limited number of small texture patches from real bronchoscopic images. By applying a purely convolutional architecture without any fully connected layers, this method allows the production of textures with arbitrary size.Results Authentic image textures of airway inner surface are created. An example of the synthesized textures and two frames of the thereby generated bronchoscopic video are shown. The necessity and sufficiency of the generated textures as image features for further depth estimation methods are demonstrated.Conclusions The method can generate textures of the airway inner surface that meet the requirements for the texture itself and for the thereby generated bronchoscopic videos, including “realistic-looking,” “long-term temporal consistency,” “sufficient image features for depth estimation,” and “large size and variety of synthesized textures.” Besides, it also shows advantages with respect to the easy accessibility to required data source. A further validation of this approach is planned by utilizing the realistic-looking bronchoscopic videos with textures generated by this method as training and test data for some depth estimation networks.