Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a stan- dard imaging procedure in ophthalmology. OCT Angiography is a promising extension, allowing for fast and non-invasive imaging of the retinal vasculature analyzing multiple OCT scans at the same place. Local variance is examined and highlighted. Despite its introduction in the clinic, unanswered questions remain when it comes to signal generation. Multi- phase fluids like intralipid, milk-water solutions and human blood cells were applied in phantom studies shedding light on some of the mechanisms. The use of hydrogel beads allows for the generation of alternative blood models for OCT and OCT Angiography. Beads were produced in Hannover, their size was measured and their long term stability was assessed. Then, beads were shipped to Karlsruhe, where OCT imaging resulted in first insights. The hydrogel acts as a diffusion barrier, which enables a clear distinction of bead and fluid when scattering particles were added. Further on, the scattering medium be- low the bead showed increased signal intensity. We conclude that the inside of the bead structure shows enhanced transmis- sion compared to the plasma substitute with dissolved TiO2 surrounding it. Beads were found clumped and deformed af- ter shipping, an issue to be addressed in further investigations. Nevertheless, hydrogel beads are promising as a blood model for OCT Angiography investigations, offering tunable optical parameters within the blood substitute solution.
Y. Gao, M. Weiß, and W. Nahm. Reduction of Uncertainty in Bolus Transit Time Measurement in Quantitative Fluorescence Angiography. In Current Directions in Biomedical Engineering, vol. 9(1) , pp. 619-622, 2023
During cerebral revascularization surgeries, blood flow values help surgeons to monitor the quality of the pro- cedure, e.g., to avoid cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome due to excessively enhanced perfusion. The state-of-the-art technique is the ultrasonic flow probe that has to be placed around the blood vessel. This causes contact between probe and vessel, which, in the worst case, leads to rupture. The recently devel- oped intraoperative indocyanine green (ICG) Quantitative Flu- orescence Angiography (QFA) is an alternative technique that overcomes this risk. However, it has been shown by the devel- oper that the calculated flow has deviations. After determining the bolus transit time as the most sensitive parameter in flow calculation, we propose a new two-step uncertainty reduction method for flow calculation. The first step is to generate more data in each measurement that results in functions of the pa- rameters. Noise can then be reduced in a second step. Two methods for this step are compared. The first method fits the model for each parameter function separately and calculates flow from models, while the second one fits multiple parame- ter functions together. The latter method is proven to perform best by in silico tests. Besides, this method reduces the de- viation of flow comparing to original QFA as expected. Our approach can be generally used in all QFA applications using two-point theory. Further development is possible if number of dimensions of the achieved parameter data are broadened that results in even more data for processing in the second step.